Iodine levels and absorption depend largely on geography. Iodine can be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and meats depending on the local levels found in the soil. Iodine is an essential nutrient for health and well-being. Iodine is absorbed into the body after ingestion through the small intestine; the majority then goes to the thyroid glands but some moves on to support the mammary gland, the salivary gland, and the gastric mucosa. Iodine, which can also be found and used in the form of iodide, is crucial to the function of the thyroid gland. Iodine is the precursor to the thyroid hormones which play an important role in metabolism and normal development.
Iodine has the potential to increase the risk of hyperkalemia and increase additive hypothyroid activities when combined with ace inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin blockers (ARBs), amiodarone, antithyroid drugs, lithium, and potassium-sparing diurectics.
Iodine, when taken in the recommended dosage is normally well tolerated by most people. However, iodine can cause an increased hypersensitivity which is characterized by angioedema, cutaneous and mucosal hemorrhage, fever, arthralgia, lymph node enlargement, eosinophilia, urticaria, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and fatal periarteritis. High dosages and chronic usage may cause pain in the teeth and gums, increased salvation, a burning sensation in the mouth, coryza, sneezing, eye irritation, headache, cough, pulmonary edema, inflammation of the pharynx, larynx, and tonsils, acne, gastric upset, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, thryroid hyperplasia, thryroid adenoma, goiter, and hypothyroidism.
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